The reality

Makerere University

we care

4th year Journalism assignments J CO 4101

These are the assignment for Print Editing, Design and Production.

  • A project (40marks) starting October 24th Produce a magazine/newsletter A4 size of at least 8pages containing content in text, photos and graphics as appropriate. You identify any company, NGO or department in a university or government that wants a newsletter or magazine produced for them. Gather the content or do interviews with them and produce the magazine. Extra marks will be given to those whose magazines/projects are taken on by the respective organisations/departments. We want you to show off your design and layout skills. This assignment must be submitted within six weeks (submission) from Friday Feb 10th.
  • 10 marks will be awarded from the project for good copy editing and headline writing.
  • Design one newspaper page from stories and images picked on,,, (10)
  • Juliana Kanyomozi is going to mark her birthday. Design for her a befitting birthday/greeting card (10)
  • Produce a well-designed business card with real or imaginary logos, organizational names, individual name, title, contacts, addresses etc (10)
  • Produce a brochure for the Department of Journalism and Communication with relevant text, images and facts (20marks). Produce in four weeks by 30th January 2017
  • You are the Editor of The Makererean. The following two stories (links) have been submitted o you for copy editing. Produce better copy for either of the stories. (10marks)

NOTE: As you can see we have provided an alternative assignment for those out of 10. We shall chose the best 4 out of number 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 but it is advisable you do all. All these will be done, handed in and marked in class. Number 1 and 6 will be followed up weekly in class to see where each of you has reached.



For clarifications, ask your class president or contact me, (include makerere university in subject line to easily track your email) 0772627676/0751627676 Johnfisher 0789703416


Karamoja And Pastoralism: A Shifting Paradigm

Submitted by Christopher Tusiime on Sun, 07/17/2016 – 20:13
Written by: 

Karamoja has for long been synonymous with cattle and pastoralism that led to degrading violent armed conflict in the region. For long this has become both a stereotype and an unfortunate mark of identity.

From podium remarks of Dr Milton Obote to becoming anybody’s sing-song that “we shall never wait for Karamoja to develop.” It is the mindful; perhaps those that have obtained quality education (not the Nyanzi type) that can view this as a strategy that has for long been used to deprive the people of Karamoja of what every living poor soul likes to call the “National Cake.”

According to Hon Albert Lokoru , the Matheniko Member of Parliament, this time we are not far from chomping away that piece of cake, and we wait with utter patience. I for one can wait till the second coming.

Being a child of the NRM revolution (I pray I never die in it), I am compelled to appreciate the good that the revolution has done and discard with mighty disregard, the negativities. Has there ever been any government that has propelled karamoja? I learnt 8 years ago, even the field Marshal failed.

Indeed times are changing and will continue to change till we are long gone. When the NRM Government came up with the Disarmament programme, no one knew what it could yield. Those in Human Rights said it was violation of freedoms yet, they couldnot be holding such a big offices in the heart of Karamoja. I still have to write eulogies to congratulate the regime for indeed, “The end justifies the means.”

In my field of work, you happen to brush at the big offices. I had a conversation with the District Police Commander, George Obia, three weeks ago; such quick talk with resounding effect. The dumb fondness that struck me as he stated that, “the karimojong are not utilizing the relative security.” He went ahead to emphasize that, “instead of settling to do Agriculture, many have resorted to sitting idle to wait till government intervenes in their hunger situation.” It was a hard fact, but it never hit so hard than the reality. Certainly we may excuse ourselves  because we say change is a gradual process.

Friends (for let me call you that), Karamoja is moving through a time frame of change, I see great transformation. Soon, I only have faith.  Pastoralism may as well be one of those historical aspects except some of us will have the onus to say “that was in our days.”

I hardly see large herds of cattle manned by young boys who deserve an education. Barely can I remember the last time I heard of a traditional wedding that cost 100 cattle. Yes, what everyone loves to castigate, cattle rustling and oh! Y
you have to listen to Commissioner Aruk Richard Maruk bragging: “I am not blessed with pride, yet I conceal it in my heart.” The region is still battling with petty cattle thieves; the “Nabilatuk resolution” is line to tackle such.

Continue reading “we care”

Makerere University

What is a copyright?


Copyright protects creative works like musical compositions, audio recordings, movies, books, articles, diagrams, photos, website content and software code. Copyright gives the creator/ copyright owner exclusive rights to stop others from using their work without his/her permission. This includes the right to copy, distribute, use and adopt the work. Copyright owners can license or permanently transfer or assign their exclusive rights to others.

Norman Mbabazi Akiiki, a lawyer and team leader and President of Intellectual Property Centre (IPC), defines copyright as a bundle of exclusive legal rights concerned with the protection of literary and artistic works, often referred to just as ‘works’.

Mbabazi says the aim of copyright is to promote science, culture and the arts. It is the framework through which artists’ creative endeavors are rewarded and recognized. “Copyright is a property right. It is a form of intellectual property and like any other property, copyright can be transferred, bought, sold or inherited. This is described in more detail in the section on licensing and assignment,” he adds.

Copyright comprises two main sets of rights: the economic rights and the moral rights. The economic rights are the rights of reproduction, broadcasting, public performance, adaptation, translation, public recitation, public display, distribution, and so on. The moral rights include the author’s right to object to any distortion, mutilation or other modification of his work that might be prejudicial to his honour or reputation.



What can be protected by Copyright law?

Literary works (e.g. articles, novels, pamphlets, books)

  • Dramatic works (e.g. scripts for films and dramas) •

Musical works (e.g. melodies)

  • Artistic works (e.g. paintings, photographs, drawings, architecture, sculpture) • Sound recordings
  • Films
  • Television and radio broadcasts
  • Cable programmes
  • Performances
  • Computer programs


How is Copyright acquired

Copyright is recognized and protected at creation. A created work is automatically protected by copyright as soon as it exists. However the work must be original (it must have been developed independently by its creator) and it must be expressed in material form. Works are protected irrespective of their quality. The Copyright law of Uganda however, further provides that the owner of a copyright and neighboring right may register the right with the registrar for the purposes of keeping evidence of ownership of right, identification of works and authors and maintenance of record of the rights.


Benefits of copyright law

Copyright protection generally lasts for the life of the creator and 50 years after the creator’s death. This means that it is not only the creators that benefit from their works, but also their heirs.


The fight against piracy: key cases

Mbabazi says that there have been very few cases where artists have taken copyright infringement to the courts of law.  “A few cases have been filed on behalf of the artist through their collecting societies. UPRS has filed over 3 cases and lost one, settled one and won one case, though it was a criminal matter that was managed by UPRS as the complainant,” he adds.

  • Nince Henry vs Nakumatt & X-Zone International

Artisite  Nince Henry real name Henry Ssekyanzi, woke up to the news that his music was on the shelves of one of the top shopping malls in Kampala. This was a fortnight to his concert and he was still debating on what song would be the title track to this album and finalizing on its artwork

Henry Ssekyanzi’s case against X-Zone International and Nakumatt Oasis is still ongoing at the Commercial Court, nearing its conclusion. One thing that this case emphasized is the fact that one who provides a platform or a premise for infringement is as guilty as the person directly infringing the copyright.

Mr James Wasula, a lawyer and leader of Uganda Performing Right Society (UPRS) said the action initiated by the artiste was a step in the right direction. “The action itself is a milestone. It is good to know that more artistes are getting to learn about the infringement on their copyright,” he said. Mr Wasula adds that the government has showed support for copyright by introducing an intellectual property unit in the Uganda Police Force. However it will take solidarity among artistes to effectively protect their copyright given that some artistes willingly offer their music to pirates

“There is lack of funding of the film industry, which makes it difficult to promote growth for start-ups, hence less contribution to copyright. There is absence of a National Copyright Commission charged with the role of promotion and growth of the industry. Also TV and Radio stations do not compensate well for local content nor give it  publicity. Specialized legal counsel and training is also not readily available or where it is, it is mostly unaffordable,” Mbabazi adds about the challenges facing enforcing copyright and royalties in Uganda.

While piracy is a growing concern in Uganda, actions are being taken so that musicians can be protected. Much work still needs to be done to promote awareness of copyrights and royalty collection, to enforce stricter punishments against those found guilty of piracy, and to strengthen and co-ordinate the bodies tasked with protecting copyrights and fighting piracy.

Kampala — Government has agreed to form a police unit to crackdown on copyright fraudsters.

The unit will be in charge of arresting people who infringe on intellectual property, including patents, trademarks and copyright, created by musicians, artists, authors and other innovators.

At the same time, the Uganda Registration Services Bureau (URSB) launched a hologram, a symbol which will be used by Collective Management Organisations and police to identify and differentiate original audio-visual products from pirated ones.

The initiative, born out of a partnership between URSB, the Uganda Police Force and the Uganda Federation of Movie Industry (UFMI), will implement the copyright law which has been inexistence since 2006 but with no enforcement.


  • Education and awareness campaigns

Mbabazi explains that rights holders typically have little knowledge about their rights. Even then, he adds, the users of their rights are basically the main employers of these artists, and so there is fear by the artists that they could lose popularity if they took any users to court. They are also put off by the lengthy and expensive court process. He adds: “However there are reforms that are necessary to transit to the next level. For example there is need to create  awareness on Intellectual Property among the masses countrywide. The targets of this campaign are the users, rights holders, government officials and legislators who in turn shall make the required laws and the need to have Extended Collective Mandates for collecting societies in our copyright laws.”

  • Stricter punishments

In Uganda enforcement of copyright has been low because the enforcement agencies are not as vibrant and able as our brothers in Kenya. Besides, stakeholders in Uganda have limited awareness of copyright and lack access to specialized legal training, resources and counsel. This leads to a situation where the rights’ holders never exploit their works financially. Secondly, those in the industry have taken advantage of the rights’ holders’ ignorance. Mbabazi also advocates for tightening of the punishments and fines to copyright infringers, advocating for an increment on  six-year sentence on top of payment of a fine amounting to Shs2m (about $600).

  • Centralized, coordinated oversight of intellectual property

Mbabazi cites unlicensed broadcasting and lack of professionalism in the sector as well as the uncooperative attitude of the national regulator, Uganda Communications Commission (UCC)  as a major challenge for the effective utilization of copyright. This is in addition to lack of authenticity and authorized agents/retailers/distribution channels, which means that with the driven demand for copyrighted works, the pirates will definitely exploit the opportunity.

“There is also a need for specialized legal counsel and training which is not readily available and in most cases unaffordable. There also is a lot of bureaucracy in the industry in addition to having scattered departments all looking at copyright – for example, music and film are looked at as cultural aspects under the Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development, registration of copyright is by Uganda Registration Services Bureau under the Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs, censorship is under the Ministry of Information and National Guidance and at the same time exhibitors are regulated by the Uganda Communications Commission under Ministry of ICT. To remedy this it is necessary to have one body administering all intellectual property matters,” argues Mbabazi.




Background/ Introduction

Whatsapp was incorporated in 2009 by Brian Acton and Jan Koum former employees of Yahoo.This happened  after leaving Yahoo in September 2007. They  once applied for jobs at facebook but were rejected. In January 2009 after purchasing an iphone and realisding the app store would create an industry of apps. Koum visited friend Alex Fishman in west san jose where the 3 discused. Koum named the app whatsapp to sound like “what’s up”. Febuary 24th,2009, he incorporated whatsapp Inc in Califonia.

June 2009, Apple launched push notifications for users to be pinged when not using an app. Koum changed, every one in the user’s network would b notified. Whatsapp 2.0 was released  was a messaging component and active users increased to 250,000. Acton being an employed and managing another startup, he decided to join the company. October 2009, he persuaded [Acton] five former friends in Yahoo! To invest $ 250,000 in seed funding and eventually he became a co-founder . He officially joined on November 1. In the same month 2009, the application eventually launched at beta stage on the app fpr iphone. Koum hired Chris Peiffer from Los Angeles to develop the blackberry version.

Whatsapp was switched from a free to paid service to avoid growing too fast because the primary cost was sending verification tests to users. December 2009, sending photos was addede to whatsapp for the iphone. 2011, whatsapp was one of the top 20 apps in Apple’s U.S.Apple store April 2011. Sequaia Capital paid approximately $8million for more than 15% of the company. By February 2013, whatsapp had about 200 million active users and 50 staff members. Sequonia invested more $50million and  whatsapp was valued at $1.5billion.

December 2013 blogpost, 400 million active users used the service eachmonth. April 22, 2014, it had over 500 million monthly active users, 700 million photos, 100 million videos, 10 billion messages were being handled eachday. August 24,2014, Koum announced on twitter that watsapp had over 600million active users worldwide with 25million new users every mnth, or 833,000 active users perday, 65million active users representing 10% to the total worldwide users, India has the largest number of consumers. Whatsapp was officially made available on PCs under the name Whatsapp web in late January 2015 through an announcement made by Koum on his Facebook page. All major desktop browsers are supported except for Microsoft Internet Explorer. WhatsApp web’s user interface is based on the default Android one.

January 21, 2015, the desktop version was only available to Android, BlackBerry and windows phone users. An unofficial derivative called Whatsapp Time has been developed, which is a standard Win32 application for PCs and supports notifications through the window notification area.

Statement of the research problem

I have discovered that most students fail to catch up with the discussion in time and they end up missing out a lot. Again 20% of the students with in the university lack smartphones to support them with this and a minimum of 40% find it hard or luck concentration reading, discussing understanding class work using there phones. Sincfe classdiscussions are so important, most students end up registering failures andthats a big negative impact on academics.

General Objective and Specific Objectives.

To identify whether all students accept and believe that watsapp is the gretest source and platform to carryout and understand discussions from.

Using specific objectives, its intended;

a] to find out the percentage of people who understand from this media platform.

b] to identify the relevance of watsapp on these discussions to students.

c] to measure the academic improvements ever since thuis idea was introduced.

d] to discovere whether lecturers acknowledge, support and accept this revision style to continue.

e]  to find out the problems that students  have been facing eversince watsapp discussions were formed.

Research Questions

These are normally acquired from the objectives;

1] What percentage of people understand from this media platform?

2] What relevance does watsapp have on theses discussions to students?

3] What improvement has been registered ever since idea was introduced?

4] Do lectures acknowledge, support and accept watsap discussion groups as a clear platform for understanding?

5] Which problems do students face ever since watsapp discussion groups were formed or created?

The “Tempo” hitmaker has received a nod in the 2017 Namibia Annual Music Awards

CINDY the voice
She wins hearts and souls


Dancehall singer Cindy Sanyu has been nominated in top African music awards.

The “Tempo” hitmaker has received a nod in the 2017 Namibia Annual Music Awards.

The singer is nominated in the category of “Best collaboration” for her song, “Sum O Dat”, a collabo with Namibian star Oteya.

Speaking about her collaboration with Oteya, Cindy could not hide her excitement about the project and previously noted that this would be a “club

banger of the season.